Anal cancer is an uncommon cancer that originates in the anus. The incidence of anal cancer is very low. In America, about 5,000 to 7000 new cases of anal cancer appear each year (4,500 were women and 2,500 were men), each year there are 1,000 people who died of anal cancer. The incidence of anal cancer is 1/100,000, for people with anal sex, the incidence of anal cancer is 35/100,000. The incidence of anal cancer is about one time more common in women than in men.
Anal cancer signs and symptoms may include:
Anus pain:The pain may occur in area of the anus.
Bleeding: You may notice that there is a bleeding from the anus, you can find blood on toilet paper.
Lumps: About 30% of Anal cancer patients feel small lumps around the anus.
Pressure: You may have a feeling of pressure in the anal area.
Anal itching: You may feel a severe itching around your anus.
Discharge of mucus: you may notice mucus is discharged from the anus when you go to the toilet.
Encopresis: you may be unable to hold your motions, such as diarrhea and constipation.
Back pain: Female patients may have a pian in the back. Because the tumour constricts the vagina.
Vaginal dryness (colpoxerosis): Women may feel a dry in vagina.
No symptoms: About 1 in 5 people with anal cancer have no symptoms at all when they are diagnosed.
Although the symptoms may be caused by other diseases, not just anal cancer, but if you develop any of the above symptoms, you should go to your doctor straight away. When you see a doctor, tell your doctor about these signs that bother you, don't omit anything.
The exact cause of anal cancer is not known, but some factors are associated with anal cancer. Read about them here.
Older age: anal cancer are more common in people age 50 and older. Most cases of anal cancer occur in wemen age 50 and older, anal cancer is more common in men less than 40 years.
HPV (human papilloma-virus): HPV is closely related to anal cancer, Women and men with HPV are more likely to get anal cancer than those who don't carry the virus. About 90% of anal cancer patients were attributable to HPV infection. HPV is extremely communicable and is transferred through sex instinct act.
Anal sex: Anal sex may increase anal cancer risk by spreading HPV virus.
Multiple personality partner: People who have many sexual partners have a greater risk of anal cancer than normal person. Because they are more likely to get HPV. The HPV can increases your risk of anal cancer. Use a condom can reduce your chances of HPV infection, however HPV virus can invade areas that are not covered by the condom, therefore the condom don't reduce the risk of anal cancer completely.
Smoking: Smoking may increase your risk of developing anal cancer .
Weakened immune system: People with lowered immunity have a higher risk of developing anal cancer, for example AIDS patients, HIV carriers and organ transplantation (they usually take anti immune drugs).
Other cancers: People who suffer from cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, penile cance(Male), those groups were at higher risk of anal cancer.
Anal disease: Such as IBD (irritable bowel disease), anal redness, anal swelling, hemorrhoids, fistulae, cicatrices, anal pain, anal inflammation and so on, these factors may increase your risk of developing anal cancer.
You can take steps to reduce your risk of anal cancer by making changes in your lifestyle and sexuality erotism. Take steps to:
Safer sex: Limiting the number of sexual partners and using a condom protective measures has been shown to protect against HPV infection.
Avoid anal sex: Anal sex can increase risk of developing anal cancer for both women and men.
HPV vaccine: HPV infection be can be prevented by vaccination. HPV vaccine is suitable for people in the 11 to 26 age group.
Quit smoking: Smoking can increase your risk of developing anal cancer.
Anal cancer treatment options depend on the type of anal cancer you have, as well as its stage, size, location, whether cancer cells has spread anywhere else in your body and your overall health.
Chemotherapy uses anti anal cancer drugs (such as take medicine or intravenous injection) to kill anal cancer cells. But chemotherapy can damage your healthy cells, which may induce adverse reactions(side effects), Including nausea, vomiting, feeling sick and fatigue, hair loss and so on.
Radiation therapy uses radioactive ray (such as X-rays and gamma ray) to weaken and destroy cancer cells around anus that may stick around after surgery. Unfortunately the radioactive ray may damage your healthy cells around anus, such as anal sclerosis and shrinking , anal skin redness and pain, etc.
The choice of surgery depend on the stage of anal cancer you have.
For patient with early stage anal cancers, because of the tumor in the anus is very small, so your doctor can easy to removes it and a small amount of healthy tissue that surrounds it. Your anus (Include sphincter muscles) after surgery can be retained at most degree, so that retained your function of normal defecation.
For patient with late stage anal cancers, or chemotherapy and radiation do not get rid of the cancer completely. your doctor may remove entire anus, sphincter muscles, rectum and a portion of the colon. Because you lost your anus, your doctor will makes an stoma (Opening) on the skin of belly, then stitches the end of your large intestine to the stoma. You use a plastic bottle or bag over the stoma to collect your shit in later life.
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