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The Antihypertensive Characteristics of Antihypertensive Drugs and the Target People

There is no best antihypertensive drugs for you, only the most suitable for yourself. antihypertensive drugs suitable for others may not be suitable for you.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of ACEIs and the Target People

The antihypertensive mechanism of ACEIs (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) is inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme, so that the production of angiotensin is decreased, the contraction of smooth muscles is weakened, the blood vessels are dilated and the peripheral resistance is decreased, thereby lowering the blood pressure.

The antihypertensive characteristics of this type of drugs include:


ACEIs are suitable for patients with all types of hypertension and from all age groups, and no drug resistance or hypotension occurs when they are administered for a long time. For hypertensive patients with kidney diseases, diabetes, heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic renal insufficiency, this type of drugs can be used as drugs of first choice for antihypertension.

The commonly used this type of drugs include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril and so on.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of ARBs and the Target People

ARBs (Angiotensin II receptor blockers) can specifically fight against angiotensin II type I receptors, and block the vasoconstriction, water-sodium retention and aldosterone secretion induced by angiotensin ii type i receptors, thereby lowering the blood pressure and protecting the cardiac and renal functions. Although both APRs and ACEIs act on RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), APRs are more specific, and can inhibit rennin and angiotensin II produced through a variety of channels and avoid side effects, such as dry cough, angio-edema, etc.

The antihypertensive characteristics of this type of drugs include:

The commonly used this type of drugs include Losartan, Valsartan, Irbesartan, Micardis (telmisartan) and so on.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of Calcium Channel Blockers and the Target People

The antihypertensive mechanism of CCB (Calcium Channel Blockers) is blocking the calcium channel on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) to dilate blood vessels, thereby lowering the blood pressure.

The antihypertensive characteristics of this type of drugs include:

The commonly used this type of drugs include amlodipine, nimodipine, extended release nifedipine tablets, verapamil SR, etc.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of Diuretics and the Target People

The antihypertensive mechanism of diuretics is inhibiting the tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, so that the excretion of sodium and water by human bodies exceeds their intake, the blood volume and extracellular fluid volume are reduced, the high blood volume load is lowered and the cardiac output is decreased, thus lowering the blood pressure. After another 3 weeks of drug administration, sodium in small artery wall cells is decreased, which reduces the reactiveness of aSM (arteriolar smooth muscle) to vasoconstrictor substances(such as noradrenaline), thereby causing the dilation of blood vessels and lowering blood pressure.

The antihypertensive characteristics of this type of drugs are relatively stable and slow antihypertensive onset, relatively long duration, and long action.

Diuretics are mainly used for mild to moderate hypertension, especially for elderly people, black, obesity people complicated with heart failure. Adverse reactions may occur when this type of drugs are administered in large doses, and therefore, they should be used in small doses. This type of drugs are not suitable for patients with gout or patients with family history of gout. This type of drugs can be secreted via the placenta and breast milk, so pregnant women and women in lactation should not use them. Besides, patients with diabetes, severe liver function damage and severe renal impairment should be cautious when taking them.

The commonly used this type of drugs include Thiazide (chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone), Loop diuretics (furosemide) , Potassium-sparing diuretics (Spironolactone, antisterone) Osmotic diuretics (Mannito, Urea) and so on.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of Beta blockers and the Target People

Beta-blockers can block cardiac receptors, so that the heart rate is decreased, the cardiac contractility is inhibited and the cardiac output is decreased, thereby lowering the blood pressure. They can inhibit the activity of the exceedingly activated sympathetic nerves so that the secretion of renin is suppressed, and therefore, they are especially suitable for high renin hypertension. Reduce the sympathetic nervous activity, make the blood vessel dilate, thereby lowering the blood pressure.

Beta-blockers can reduce the oxygen consumption of myocardium, upregulate the number of Beta-receptors and enhance the sensitivity of catecholamine to Beta-receptors, thus protecting the myocardium. Besides, they demonstrates anti-arrhythmic effects, and inhibit platelet aggregations. They does not induce autonomic nervous excitement while lowering the blood pressure, and their long-term use can reverse the Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy. However, they may aggravate the disease conditions for some patients with heart failure.

The antihypertensive characteristic of this type of antihypertensive drugs is their rapid onset of action, while the durations of action are varied between different drugs.

They are indicated against a variety of different levels of hypertension, especially for young to middle-age patients with rapid heart rates or patients with angina pectoris, while their efficacy on hypertension in elderly patients is relatively poor. Beta-blockers can not only decrease the resting blood pressure, but also suppress the sharp elevation in blood pressure under the state of motion.

The commonly used this type of drugs include Bisoprolol, Metoprolol, Atenolol and so on.

itemThe Antihypertensive Characteristics of Alpha blockers and the Target People

Alpha receptors are mainly located in the heart, the coronary artery, the blood vessel of brain, the blood vessel of mucocutaneous, the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, the sphincter, the iris, etc. Alpha blockers can inhibit the combination of noradrenaline with Alpha-receptors, producing anti-renin effects and thus lowering the blood pressure.

Typically, Alpha blockers are not used as drugs of first choice for the treatment of hypertension.

Alpha blockers are suitable for various degrees of hypertension, and have definite efficacy generally only on mild to moderate hypertension when used alone. Since they have no obvious metabolic adverse reactions and demonstrate good lipid lowering effects, Alpha blockers are suitable for diabetic patients, peripheral vascular disease, hyperlipemia, renal insufficiency, prostatic hyperplasia, and their effects can be enhanced when used in combination with diuretics.

Elderly patients and patients with a history of stroke should be cautious in the use of this type of drugs in order to prevent postural hypotension.

See also:
Should patients take hypotensive before their return visits to doctor?
Misunderstandings about the use of drugs for high blood pressure
Best Medication Time for High Blood Pressure
How to Recognize Antihypertensive drugs Side Effects?
High blood pressure changes during the day
Blood Pressure Monitoring
Control of Blood Pressure within the Normal Range
Masked hypertension (high blood pressure)

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