The main harm of high blood pressure is arteriosclerosis and its complications in brain, heart and kidney. Therefore, People with high blood pressure need not only medication, but also regular brain, heart, kidney, blood, urine and other related examinations, so as to observe and recognize their conditions at any time, and to take appropriate preventive and control measures.
Routine Physical Examination
Heart rate, cardiac size, cardiopulmonary murmur inspection via stethoscope, double upper limb blood pressure measurement, and blood pressure measurement in all limbs if necessary.
Blood pressure is measured by automatic timing sphygmomanometer, every 15-30 minutes for a continuous measurement period of 24 hours or longer. The mean values and the discrete values of blood pressure in daytime and nighttime can be measured to reflect the actual blood pressure levels sensitively and objectively. It can also be used for the diagnosis of white coat hypertension to determine the severity of hypertension, so as to guide the antihypertensive treatment and evaluate the antihypertensive effect, etc.
Cardiac Function Examination
Whether the targeted patients have left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia or not can be found by electrocardiographic examination. Echocardiographic examination can be applied if the patient is suspected to have left ventricular enlargement or left ventricular wall thickening.
This examination is to prevent the occurrence of heart diseases, left ventricular enlargement can be visible in patients with long-term hypertension. When the enlargement is seen in both the left and right ventricular, accompanied by pulmonary congestion or pulmonary edema in the chest, there may be a risk of heart failure in people with high blood pressure.
Urine and Renal Function Examination
With the development of high blood pressure, persistent spasm will occur in the renal artery, resulting in kidney lesions. Therefore, urine routine examination and renal function examination should be carried out to these patients regularly.
Blood electrolyte Examination
Hypertensive patients with severe renal dysfunction and patients with secondary hypertension are often accompanied by electrolyte disorder.
Patients with long-term high blood pressure and high blood lipid had better go to hospital for neck Color Doppler and cerebral angiography, which examined the brain of the patients for cerebral arterial stenosis or cerebral arteriosclerosis. If patients are found to develop carotid or cerebral arterial stenosis or arteriosclerosis, their blood pressure cannot be lowered to normal levels, but to a slightly higher level.
Some pathological changes will occur in the retinal vessels of the eyes when the patient's condition develops to a certain degree. Fundus examination can reflect the degree of arteriosclerosis of patients to a certain extent, providing certain valuable reference for the timely adjustment of the patient's treatment and prevention measures.
High blood pressure can cause changes in the blood, such as elevated blood glucose and increased blood viscosity. For patients with elevated blood pressure, if there are trends of increased red blood cells, hemoglobin and blood viscosity through the blood test, the patient should be prompted to have the risk of thrombosis. Regular testing of blood sugar can help early detection of diabetes, the possibility of concurrent diabetes should be considered for patients with persistent elevated blood sugar. Abnormal increase of blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels should be taken into consideration to confirm the association with coronary heart disease.
Supplementary Examination: exclude secondary hypertension
Supplementary Examination like Plasma Renin Activity and Angiotension II Levels, aldosterone, blood catecholamine and its metabolism production, CT examination, Renal and Adrenal gland ultrasonography can be adopted to exclude secondary hypertension.
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